Table of Contents
Hong Kong Protests
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Hong Kong Protests
As a result, Hong Kong has its own legal system and borders, and rights including freedom of assembly and free speech are protected
The Chinese government said in 2014 it would allow voters to choose their leaders from a list approved by a pro-Beijing committee, but critics called this a “sham democracy” and it was voted down in Hong Kong’s legislature.
Protests in Hong Kong are against a controversial extradition bill, which if approved, would allow suspects to be sent to mainland China for trial
It is a permanent intergovernmental international organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai (China) by Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyz Republic, Russian, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. It was preceded by the Shanghai Five mechanism
strengthening mutual trust and neighbourliness among the member states promoting their effective cooperation in politics, trade, the economy, research, technology, and culture, as well as in education, energy, transport, tourism, environmental protection, and other areas
making joint efforts to maintain and ensure peace, security, and stability in the region and
moving towards the establishment of a democratic, fair and rational new international political and economic order
The historical meeting of the Heads of State Council of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation was held in Astana in 2017, where the status of the full member was granted to India and Pakistan
SCO comprises eight member states and 4 observers (Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran, and Mongolia)
Heads of State Council (HSC) is the supreme decision-making body which meets once a year and adopts decisions and guidelines on all important matters of the organisation
Its official languages are Russian and Chinese
It has two permanent bodies — SCO Secretariat based in Beijing and the Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) based in Tashkent
RATS operates on combating terrorism, separatism, and extremism
SCO Interbank Consortium (SCO IBC) was established in 2005 to provide funding and bank services for investment projects sponsored by the governments of the SCO member states
India and Pakistan are not members of the same
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is a regional organization comprising seven Member States lying in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity
This sub-regional organization came into being on 6 June 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration
It constitutes seven Member States: five deriving from South Asia, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and two from Southeast Asia, including Myanmar and Thailand
BIMSTEC region is home to around 1.5 billion people which constitute around 22% of the global population with a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of 2.7 trillion economies.
Unlike many other regional groupings, BIMSTEC is a sector-driven cooperative organization.
Starting with six sectors—including trade, technology, energy, transport, tourism, and fisheries—for sectoral cooperation in the late 1997, it expanded to embrace nine more sectors—including agriculture, public health, poverty alleviation, counter-terrorism, environment, culture, people to people contact and climate change—in 2008.
The Chairmanship of BIMSTEC rotates among the Member States. Sri Lanka is the present chair of BIMSTEC.
ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation
It is a forum that functions as a coordinator of co-operation between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the three East Asian nations of China, South Korea, and Japan
It is the latest development of East Asian regional co-operation
Its significance was strengthened by the Asian Financial Crisis
In response to the crisis, ASEAN closely cooperated with China, South Korea, and Japan. Since the implementation of the Joint Statement on East Asia Cooperation in 1999 at the Manila Summit, APT finance ministers have been holding periodic consultations
ASEAN Plus Three, in establishing the Chiang Mai initiative, has been credited as forming the basis for financial stability in Asia, the lack of such stability has contributed to the Asian Financial Crisis
Asian Currency Unit (ACU) is a proposed weighted index of currencies for ASEAN+
Its purpose is to help stabilise the region’s financial markets
It is a currency basket and not a real currency i.e., a benchmark for regional currency movements
Since the process began in 1997, ASEAN Plus Three (APT) co-operation has broadened and deepened to also focus on subjects other than finance too in the discussion such as the areas of food and energy security, financial cooperation, trade facilitation, disaster management, people-to-people contacts, narrowing the development gap, rural development and poverty alleviation, human trafficking, labour movement, communicable diseases, environment
and sustainable development, and transnational crime, including counterterrorism