GEOMORPHOLOGY PACIFIC RING OF FIRE
➢ Mount Sinabung volcano
➢ Sumatra Island, Indonesia.
RING OF FIRE:
➢ Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
➢ The Ring of Fire is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt.
➢ About 90% of the world’s earthquakes and 81% of the world’s largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire ➢ Mount St. Helens in the USA
➢ Mount Fuji in Japan
➢ Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.
➢ The Ring of Fire is the result of the subduction of oceanic tectonic plates beneath lighter continental plates. GEO-POLITICS G20:
➢ G20 Ministerial meeting on Trade and Digital Economy
➢ Tsukuba (Japan) About G20:
➢ The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 19 countries and the European Union (EU).
➢ Founded in 1999 with the aim to discuss policy pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability, the G20 has expanded its agenda since 2008 and heads of government or heads of state, as well as finance ministers and foreign ministers, have periodically conferred at summits ever since.
➢ Membership of the G20 consists of 19 individual countries plus the European Union. The EU is represented by the European Commission and by the European Central Bank.
➢ Collectively, the G20 economies account for around 85 percent of the Gross World Product (GWP), 80 percent of world trade.
➢ The G20 has no permanent staff of its own and its chairmanship rotates annually between nations divided into regional groupings.
➢ India is a member.
SCO SUMMIT 2019:
➢ The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security alliance, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
➢ The original five nations, with the exclusion of Uzbekistan, were previously members of the Shanghai Five group, founded on 26 April 1996.
➢ Since then, the organisation has expanded its membership to eight countries when India and Pakistan joined SCO as full members on 9 June 2017 at a summit in Astana, Kazakhstan. INFORMATION FUSION CENTRE – INDIAN OCEAN REGION
➢ The IFC has been established at Gurugram, India and is collocated with the Information Management and Analysis Centre which is jointly administered by the Indian Navy and Indian Coast Guard.
➢ IFC-IOR is established with the vision of strengthening maritime security in the region and beyond, by building a common coherent maritime situation picture and acting as a maritime information hub for the region.
➢ Establishment of IFC- IOR would ensure that the entire region is benefitted by mutual collaboration and exchange of information and understanding the concerns and threats which are prevalent in the region.
➢ The Windrush Scheme enables Commonwealth citizens, their children, and some other long term residents of the UK to obtain documentation confirming their status free of charge.
➢ The Windrush generation refers to citizens of former British colonies who arrived before 1973 when the rights of such Commonwealth citizens to live and work in Britain were substantially curtailed.
➢ The immigrants came at the invitation of the British government, which was facing a labour shortage due to the destruction caused by World War II.
➢ While a large proportion of them was of Jamaican/Caribbean descent who came on the ship Windrush, Indians and other South Asians were also affected by the UK government’s handling of their immigration status.
Cyclone Vayu: Named by India. What about names of Cyclones in India & the neighbourhood? The Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre (RSMC) of Tropical Cyclones in New Delhi is assigned the responsibility of issuing weather outlooks and tropical cyclone advisories for the countries in the WMO/ESCAP Panel region bordering the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. This is also the agency responsible for naming the cyclones in this region. The WMO/ESCAP Panel on Tropical Cyclones at its twenty-seventh Session held in the year 2000 in Muscat (Oman) agreed in principle to assign names to the tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea
After long deliberations among the member countries, the naming of the tropical cyclones over the north Indian Ocean commenced from September 2004. The eight-panel members are India, Bangladesh, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka & Thailand. The RSMC (New Delhi) gives each tropical cyclone an identification name from the below name list. The identification system covers both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY: PARTICULARLY VULNERABLE TRIBAL GROUP:
➢ Abujh Marias
➢ Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG).
➢ Abujhmarh, where this tribe lives, is considered by the government to be one of the last remaining strongholds of Left-wing extremism.
➢ The Abujhmarh forest is spread over 1,500 square miles in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh. About ‘Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)’: Who are Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups(PVTGs)?
• The PVTGs are the marginalized section of the Scheduled tribes of India. They are a section who are relatively isolated, educationally and socio-economically backward, living in a habitat far away from amenities.
• PVTG is not a Constitutional category, nor are these constitutionally recognized communities. • It is a government of India classification created with the purpose of enabling improvement in the conditions of certain communities with particularly low development The criteria followed for determination of PVTGs are as under:
1. A pre-agriculture level of technology;
2. A stagnant or declining population;
3. Extremely low literacy; and
4. A subsistence level of the economy.
The Dhebar Commission (1960-1961) stated that within Scheduled Tribes there existed an inequality in the rate of development. During the fourth Five Year Plan a sub-category was created within Scheduled Tribes to identify groups that considered to be at a lower level of development. This was created based on the Dhebar Commission report and other studies. This sub-category was named “Primitive tribal group”. The features of such a group include a
pre-agricultural system of existence, that is a practice of hunting and gathering, zero or negative population growth, extremely low level of literacy in comparison with other tribal groups. In 2006 the government of India proposed to rename “Primitive tribal group” as Primitive and vulnerable tribal group”. PTG has since been renamed Primitive and vulnerable tribal group by the government of India.
ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY KIMBERELY PROCESS
➢ Intersessional meeting of Kimberley Process (KP)
➢ India is currently the Chair of Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS).
➢ India is a founding member of KPCS. What is the Kimberley Process?
➢ The Kimberley Process (KP) is a multilateral trade regime established in 2003 with the goal of preventing the flow of conflict diamonds.
➢ The core of this regime is the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) under which States implement safeguards on shipments of rough diamonds and certify them as “conflict free”
➢ The KP has 55 participants, representing 82 countries, including the European Union.
➢ The OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer) is a NASA asteroid study and sample-return mission.
➢ The mission’s main goal is to obtain a sample of at least 60 grams (2.1 oz) from 101955 Bennu, a carbonaceous near-Earth asteroid, and return the sample to Earth for a detailed analysis.
➢ The closest-ever orbit of a planetary body made by a man-made spacecraft.
➢ orbit 680 meters above the asteroid Bennu’s surface.
INDIAN SPACE STATION
➢ K. Sivan, Chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) recently announced that the country is planning to launch its own space station. After its successful launch, India would become a 4th country to launch a space station.
➢ The proposed space station is anticipated to weigh about 20 tonnes, it would be placed in an orbit 400 km above the earth and will serve as a facility where astronauts can stay for up to 15-20 days in space.
➢ India is targeting 2030 as the date to launch the country’s space station which will likely be used to conduct microgravity experiments.
AGRICULTURE: BLIGHT DISEASE IN RICE:
➢ Sheath blight is a fungal disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani.
➢ Rice sheath blight is an increasing concern for rice production, especially in intensified production systems. ➢ Sheath blight occurs in areas with high temperature (28−32°C), high levels of nitrogen fertilizer, and relative humidity of crop canopy from 85−100%.
➢ Plants are more vulnerable to sheath blight during the rainy season. MAPS: STRAIT OF HORMUZ
Channel linking the Persian Gulf (west) with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea
Most crude exported from Saudi Arabia, Iran, the UAE, Kuwait, and Iraq – all members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – are shipped through this waterway. KAILASH MANASAROVAR YATRA:
➢ The highest freshwater lake in the world.
➢ Tibet Autonomous Region, China
➢ Lake Manasarovar is near the source of the Sutlej, which is the easternmost large tributary of the Indus.
• Nathu La is a mountain pass in the Himalayas in East Sikkim district.
• It connects the Indian state of Sikkim with China’s Tibet Autonomous Region