Q) Analyse the factors for highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India.
A. LET’s DEVELOP THOUGHT PROCESS: WHAT COULD HAVE BEEN THE RESONS:
1) Climatic Conditions
3) Raw Material
TOPIC FOR YOUR REFERENCE: ( IN SHORT) HAND WOVEN CLOTH INTRODUCTION:
Glorious tradition of producing excellent quality cotton textiles.
Hand woven cloth.
Muslins of dhaka, chintzes of masulipatnam, calicos of calicut and goldwrought cotton of burhanpur, surat and Vadodara
Expensive and time consuming.
Emergence of new textile mills of the west, which produced cheap and good quality fabrics through mechanized industrial units.
MECHANISED UNITS MUMBAI
The first successful mechanized textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.
warm, moist climate, a port for importing machinery, availability of raw material and skilled labour
The first mill was established in 1859.
situated very close to cotton growing area.
easy availability of raw material.
climate for spinning and weaving.
flat terrain and easy availability of land .
densely populated states of Gujarat and Maharashtra provide both skilled and semi-skilled labour.
easy access to the market.
Mumbai port for export.
WHY DISPERSAL ?
Railway lines penetrating into the peninsular region.
Respect to raw material, market and labour
Nearness to coal
Wide market with port facilities
Development of hydroelectricity
From areas of high labour cost to those with low labour cost
STRUCTURE INTRODUCTION FACTORS CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION
India held world monopoly in the manufacturing of cotton textiles for about 3,000 years from about B.C. 1500 to A.D. 1500. In the middle ages, Indian cotton textile products were in great demand in the Eastern and European markets. The muslins of Dhaka, chintzes of Masulipatnam, calicos of Calicut, baftas of Cambay and gold-wrought cotton piece goods of Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara acquired a worldwide celebrity by virtue of their quality and design. During the Mechanised phase of cotton textile industry ; it was located only in Mumbai and Ahmedabad. But eventually due to certain factors it has dispersed ( not shifted) to almost ever other area of the country.
WHAT DID WE THINK INITIALLY:
1) Climatic Conditions
3) Raw Material
FACTORS FOR HIGHLY DECENTRALIZED COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA
Cotton production in India is mainly done in Maharashtra and Gujarat historically, hence many textile industries are located in western India.
India is a tropical country and cotton is the most comfortable fabric for a hot and humid climate. Initially this industry flourished in the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat because of favourable humid climate. But today, humidity can be created artificially,so this industry has spread to other parts of India. Coimbatore, Kanpur, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ludhiana, Puducherry and Panipat are some of the other important centres.
Ease Of Transportation:
Since cotton is non-weight losing, it can be transported over long distances where transportation costs can be offset by other factors
Availability of Labour
Since cotton textile industry is labour intensive, so location of factories is heavily dependent of availability of cheap labour.
Cotton textile industry is highly dependent on reliable power availability, hence areas having lesser power outages are important.
Since India is one of the biggest textile exporters, nearness to ports becomes an important factor.
Easy Availability of Raw Material
This done for the easy availability of raw material as the cotton is produced largely in india
Availability of Secondary Resources
Availability of land and cheap finance goes a long way in pulling this industry as most textile industries are owned by small businessmen who can‟t afford to open large factories on their own capital or buy large chunks of land. Since textile industry needs plenty of water for dyeing, bleaching etc, nearness to water bodies is also an important factor.
Forward and Backward Linkages
Expansion of cotton growing area like in Punjab etc has also enabled concentration of textile industries in these areas.
Thus with advent of time, cotton textile industry in India moved out of Gujarat and Maharashtra and is now well spread across all parts of India.