Q. “India was the first country to have a population policy, yet it has the maximum population today.” Compare and contrast the approach of India and China in tackling the population challenge.
1. First country:
• 1940’s (Population policy)in this we are talking about voluntary participation
• Bhore committe
• Next we can talk about 1970- Emergency when government started the Compulsory sterilization here after ratified by the cabinet and the parliament (from July to August 1975), based on the rationale that there were imminent internal and external threats to the Indian state. So after some time government stop the compulsory sterilization.
2. India vs China:
• As we know China is 1st populated country and India is second, TFR= 2-3
• China Have Policy of 2 children in ruler’s area and 1 child in urban area (O.C.P.) If we compare with china there are different approach In china it was compulsory and there are incentive and disincentive
• In India is still voluntary
• Region wise fertility rate in some area its 3.5 and in some it’s really low
• Religion wise also vary
• Another factor which we can consider is education status and Women education status
• Economic status depend on prosperity and per capita income is high there is number of children is less
• Working women, age delayed,
• In India there is a culture aspect
• The birth control movement in China
• as compare in India there are no availability of contraceptive and it also confided as “taboo”
• In India there are law against Abortion on the contrary China its easily accessible
• Son Meta-Preference is the phenomena where parents continue to produce children until the desired number of sons are born. According to Economic Survey-2017-18, there are over 21 million. ‘Unwanted girls’ in India, by analyzing the sex ratio of last child (SRLC).
3. Way Forward
• Beti Padhao beti Padhao
• Civil Society
• Woman marrige age