- A landlocked country in East Asia, sandwiched between Russia and China
- Contains very little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south
- Its capital Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world‘s coldest capital city with Moscow, Ottawa, and Nursultan
- The cooperation is limited to diplomatic visits, provision of soft loans and financial aid ad the collaboration in IT sector.
- India was the first country outside the Soviet bloc to establish diplomatic relations with Mongolia back in 1955.
- India financially helped the country in 2016 when it was blocked by China.
1. Nomadic Elephant
2. Khaan Quest
- The relationship has been upgraded at the level of ‗strategic partnership‘
- V-P M Venkaiah Naidu called for expanding bilateral ties between India and Mongolia in different sectors including renewable energy, especially solar energy and Information Technology.
- Mongolia joining the International Solar Alliance was appreciated.
- PM Modi and President Battulga unveiled the statue of Lord Buddha installed in Gandan Monastery in Ulaanbaatar.
- Both countries also signed MoUs on space cooperation and disaster management.
International Migrant Stock 2019
- India has emerged as the leading country of origin for immigrants across the world, with 17.5 million international migrants in 2019 coming from India according to data released by UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA).
- The percentage of international migrants of the total global population has increased to 3.5% from 2.8% in 2000.
- While India remained as the top source of international migrants, the number of migrants living in India saw a slight decline from 5.24 million in 2015 to an estimated 5.15 million in 2019 — both 0.4% of the total population of the country.
- One-third of all international migrants originated from 10 countries including India, Mexico, China, Russia, and Syria.
- It is a part of the UN Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences as well as services to the UN ECOSOC.
- It supports international cooperation to promote sustainable development for all, having a foundation the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 17 SDGs.
- It translates global commitments in the economic, social and environmental spheres into national policies and actions and continues to play a key role in monitoring progress towards internationally agreed-upon development goals.
- It is also a member of UN Development Group (UNDG).
- CPEC is clutch of projects valued at $51 billion which aims at rapidly expanding and upgrading Pakistan‘s infrastructure and strengthening the economic ties between China and Pakistan
- It includes building roads, laying railway lines and pipelines to carry oil and gas
- It eventually aims at linking the city of Gwadar in South Western Pakistan to China‘s North Western region Xinjiang through a network of highways and railways
- CPEC‘s potential impact on Pakistan has been compared to that of the Marshall Plan undertaken by US in post-War Europe
- The proposed project will be financed by heavily-subsidized loans, that will be disbursed to Pakistan by Chinese banking giants such as Exim Bank of China, China Development Bank, and the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China
- About 90% of the total outlay for this project will be funded by the consortium of Chinese banks and the balance 10% by Pakistan Geopolitical Impact
- It establishes a symbiotic relationship between China and Pakistan and analysts worry that this may have ramifications for the geopolitical situation in Kashmir (especially PoK).
- If the corridor opens up a major new global trade route, not just Pakistan and China, but also India may see positive spillover effects from burgeoning trade with West Asia or Africa