1.Consider the following statements regarding EDGE Species
1.The EDGE score of a species, on which the concept of EDGE Species is based, is derived from its scores for Evolutionary Distinctness (ED) and for Globally Endangered status (GE).
2.IUCN has launched a global conservation initiative, the EDGE of Existence Programme to raise awareness and funds for the conservation of these species.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?
c)Both 1 and 2
2.Consider the following statements regarding Himalayan Trillium
1.It is found in Indian Himalayas only.
2.The roots of the plant contain Trillarin, which on hydrolysis yields 2.5% diosgenin, a cortico-steroid hormone.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
3.Consider the following species of birds
1.Great Indian Bustard
Which of the above belong to the category of “Bustards”?
b)2 and 3 Only
c)1, 2 and 3 Only
d)All of the above
4.Consider the following statements regarding Great Green Wall
1.It is being planned to stop the spread of Sahara northwards.
2.It involves cooperation of 20 different countries, from Senegal in the west, to Sudan and Eritrea in the east.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?
c)Both 1 and 2
d)None of the above
5.Consider the following regarding Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs)
1.The Bombay Natural History Society and Birdlife International have identified IBAs in India.
2.It has been recognized by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
3.In many regions, IBA inventories have been used to identify potential Ramsar sites.
Choose the correct option from the following given below
a)1 and 2 Only
b)2 and 3 Only
c)1 and 3 Only
d)All of the Above
Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered (EDGE) species are animal species which have a high EDGE score, a metric combining endangered conservation status with distinctiveness of taxon.
Distinctive species have few closely related species, and EDGE species are often the only surviving member of their genus or even higher taxonomic rank.
The extinction of such species would therefore represent a disproportionate loss of unique evolutionary history, biodiversity and potential for future evolution.
Recent research indicates that 70% of the world’s most threatened and evolutionarily distinct mammal species are currently receiving little or no conservation attention.
Zoological Society of London (ZSL) has launched a global conservation initiative, the EDGE of Existence Programme to raise awareness and funds for the conservation of these species.
Himalayan Trillium is a robust, trifoliate perennial herbaceous plant species with deep red and green coloured flowers on the axis and is found in the Himalayas, especially in India, Nepal, China and Bhutan at an altitude of 2700m-4000m.
Stocky 15 cm purple-red stems carry 3 green leaves just below a single, small, starry flower of deep red and green color.
Roots contain Trillarin, which on hydrolysis yields 2.5% diosgenin – a cortico-steroid hormone.
Reportedly, the cortico-steroid hormone isolated from the plant is used in various preparations like sex hormones; cortisone and allied preparation used in rheumatism, regulation of menstrual flow and in stomach related problems.
Due to its effective medicinal properties, the demand of this drug is high in the international markets and is often smuggled out to markets in Punjab.
The scale at which it is collected will surely result in a huge reduction in population and even local extinctions.
It would be important to include it as a schedule species under the Wildlife Protection Act to ensure more protection.
Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large, terrestrial birds living mainly in dry grassland areas and on the steppes of the Old World.
The country’s two resident bustard species, the great Indian bustard and the Bengal florican, are classified as ‘Critically Endangered’ in IUCN’s Red List and third one, that is, Lesser Florican is classified as ‘Endangered’ in IUCN’s Red List.
The ‘Great Green Wall’ is an ambitious tree-planting programme that aims to rope in the cooperation of 20 different countries, from Senegal in the west, to Sudan and Eritrea in the east, to throw a wall of green in its path, and arrest the desert’s spread.
The buffering wall should stabilise soils and keep them moist, it should slow the drying and scouring effects of the wind, and help restore the micro-climate, allowing food crops to grow around the trees.
Great Green Wall is being planned to stop the spread of Sahara southwards.
Birds are excellent indicators of ecosystem health.
The IBA programme of Birdlife International aims to identify, monitor and protect a global network of IBAs for conservation of the world’s birds and associated biodiversity.
The IBAs serve as conservation areas for protection of birds at the global, regional or sub-regional level.
According to Birdlife International, designation of IBAs is based on standardized criteria, namely
- hold significant numbers of one or more globally threatened bird species,
- be one of a set of sites that together hold a suite of restricted-range species or biome-restricted species and
- Have exceptionally large numbers of migratory or congregatory birds.
The IBAs contain a range of habitats, such as wetlands, mudflats, microhabitats in biodiversity hotspots, grasslands and scrublands, making them excellent indicators of biodiversity richness (India’s 5th National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2014).
The Bombay Natural History Society and Birdlife International have identified 467 IBAs in India (Islam and Rahmani, 2004).
Forty percent of these IBAs fall outside the PA network and thus form an important tool for landscape-level conservation planning.
BNHS has also prepared a list of 96 new/potential sites which can be designated as IBAs in the future.
BirdLife’s IBA programme has produced the only global, site-based, spatially-explicit set of information on biodiversity, which has been recognised by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) as the basis of a worldwide network of priority sites for conservation.
In many regions, IBA inventories have been used to identify potential Ramsar sites (wetlands of international importance).