Ques. Elaborate on different phases of disaster risk management cycle.
- Disaster Risk Management is the application of disaster risk reduction policies and strategies, to prevent new and reduce existing disaster risks, and manage residual risks, contributing to the strengthening of resilience and reduction of losses.
The disaster risk management cycles can be divided into three strategies –
- Pre-Disaster – It is a preventive process and includes such measures, which enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to the disaster situations so as to cope with them effectively. It incorporates four components:
- Awareness and capacity building: Making people aware of the extent of risk of a hazard and their vulnerability to it, thus, involving them in disaster management strategy.
- Planning: Safety measures, recovery options etc. helps assess disaster risk and carry on rescue operations accordingly.
- Early Warning System: It enables government agencies to inform public in disaster prone areas to take up necessary actions soon after a hazard is suspected.
- During Disaster – When a hazard strikes, the service groups, government agencies and social organisations take up all possible measures to rescue people and ensure that their needs and provisions are met properly and their sufferings are minimised. Efforts are taken to promote community-based disaster response.
- Post-disaster: This includes response and recovery strategies.
- First damage assessment is done through surveys and baseline data collection.
- Then on the basis of these relief and rehabilitation measures are undertaken which includes restoration of livelihoods, providing basic necessities such as food, shelter etc.
- Includes special measures for more vulnerable sections in disaster such as women, children, and elderlies etc. to enable them to cope up with the effects of disaster.
- For disaster risk management a comprehensive action on all three stages is required. India as a signatory to Sendai Framework has framed National Disaster Management Plan; which provides a framework and direction to all stakeholders for all phases of disaster management cycle.