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Discuss issues faced by Tribals in India..

By May 2, 2022May 22nd, 2023GS1, Mains Answer Writing, Social Issues

Discuss issues faced by Tribals in India. Suggest Measures to deal with the same.

  • Tribals constitute about 8.6% of Indian Population only but they exhibit significantly crucial role in cultural preservation, environmental conservation, forest management and providing diversity to Indian society. Due to their characteristic Isolation and changing times, several issues have caught up the lives of Tribals such as
    • Social Issues –
      • Health – Due to their isolated sustenance and poor health Infrastructure, they face high risk of diseases.
      • Poverty – Tribals have high incidence of Poverty, which promotes other social ills as well, Example – Extreme poverty has forced Sahariya Tribe to push girls into flesh trade,
      • Social Exclusion and discrimination due to their distinct culture,
    • Environmental Issues –
      • Climate Change has high impact on tribal lives. Example – Maldhari Tribe are leaving Banni grasslands due to climate change.
      • Environmental degradation by mining activities has impacted them. Example – Chenchus tribe displacement due to Uranium mining and its radioactive pollution.
    • Economic Issues –
      • Forced displacement for development projects. Example – Ongoing expulsion of Kodar Tribe for dam project at Athirapalli.
      • Disownership of minor forest produce, which has been source of livelihood for tribals.
    • Cultural Issues –
      • Cultural disturbance of tribals in the name of tourism or research work. Example – Sentinels of Andamans.

Some of the measures to deal with tribal issues, which have also been suggested by XaXa Committee are as follows –

  • Using local art and craft for commercial purposes. Example – Today of Nilgir have been using local handicraft for economic sustenance.
  • Developing health and education infrastructure according to local ethos.
  • Efforts of TRIFED like E-Governance initiative. Example – Tying up with Amazon and Flipkart for market access
    • PM Van Dhan Yojana – Institutionally production of small enterprises. Example – Khatkari tribe efforts to market Giloy,
    • Panchsheel model of Development, as professed by Jawaharlal Nehru, which allowed development initiatives according to the local need of Tribals, will go a long way in inclusive and equitable growth for all.