1st Constitutional Amendment Act 1951
- Empowered the state to make special provisions for the advancement of socially and economically backward classes. (Article 15)
- Provided for the saving of laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc. (Article 31 A)
- Added Ninth Schedule to protect the land reform and other laws included in it from the judicial review. (Article 31 B)
- Public order, friendly relations with foreign states and incitement to an offence.(Article 19(2))
- State trading and nationalization of any trade or business by the state is not to be invalid on the ground of violation of the right to trade or business.(Article 19 (6))
7th Constitutional Amendment Act 1956
- Abolished the existing classification of states into four categories i.e., Part A, Part B, Part C and Part D states, and reorganised them into 14 states and 6 union territories.
- Extended the jurisdiction of high courts to union territories.
- Provided for the establishment of a common high court for two or more states.
- Provided for the appointment of additional and acting judges of the high court.(Article 224)
9th Constitutional Amendment Act 1960
- Facilitated the cession of Indian territory of Berubari Union (located in West Bengal) to Pakistan as provided in the Indo-Pakistan Agreement (1958).
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