GEO-POLITICS QUADILATERAL MEET
Quadrilateral meet among India, Japan, Australia and the United States ➢ Bangkok, Thailand.
THE QUAD GROUP:
The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD, also known as the Quad) is an informal strategic dialogue between the United States, Japan, Australia and India that is maintained by talks between member countries. The dialogue was initiated in 2007 by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of Japan.
It was originally initiated in 2007 but dismantled after withdrawal of Australia.
However, it was revived in 2017 in response to increased Chinese influence in the region.
At the meet countries held consultations on their collective efforts for a free, open and inclusive Indo-Pacific region. The consultations also underscored Quad’s intention of continuing with close coordination and collaboration among themselves in support of sustainable, private sector-led development, maritime security of the region and of good governance.
ORGANISATION OF ISLAMIC CORPORATION:
Mecca, Saudi Arabia
current issues in Muslim world
recent developments in OIC member states.
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation is an international organization founded in 1969.
Membership : 57 states
Permanent Secretariat is in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French.
2019 is the 50th anniversary of OIC.
The Organization is the collective voice of the Muslim world. It endeavors to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world.
The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations and the European Union.
New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)
New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation with the formal name of Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.
It was signed on 8 April 2010 in Prague, and, after ratification,
It entered into force on 5 February 2011.
PHYSIOGRAPHY: SIACHEN GLACIER:
The Siachen Glacier lies immediately south of the great drainage divide that separates the Eurasian Plate from the Indian subcontinent in the extensively glaciated portion of the Karakoram sometimes called the “Third Pole”.
GLACIERS IN INDIA:
Batura Glacier J & K – Karakoram range
Khurdopin Glacier J & K – Karakoram range
Hispar Glacier J & K – Karakoram range
Biafo Glacier J & K – Karakoram range
Baltoro Glacier J & K – Karakoram range
Chogolungma glacier J & K – Karakoram range
Diamir Glacier J & K – Karakoram range
LOC between India & POK
Close to China border – Karakoram Range
Gangotri Glacier Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand
located in Trishul peak of Pithoragarh of Uttarakhand
Source of Goriganga
Pindari glacier Nanda devi, Uttarakhand
Largest glacier in the Eastern Himalaya
Located on Kanchenjunga peak, Sikkim
It is the highest active volcano in Europe
longest record of continuous eruption.
Due to its history of recent activity and nearby population, Mount Etna has been designated a Decade Volcano by the United Nations.
In June 2013, it was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
NOTE: FIND THE HIGHEST / LARGEST VOLCANOES OF THE WORLD.
NASA (INSIGHT) MISSION
The Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission is a robotic lander designed to study the deep interior of the planet Mars
Through three of its important components:
(a) Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS):
It will provide information on how quakes that can be caused by processes other than just tectonic action could travel through Mars.
Understanding how the planet is layered will help scientists work backward, piecing together how dust, metals and ices in the early solar system combined to form the Red Planet.
(b) Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE):
Insight has onboard Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE) which will precisely tracks the location of the Lander to determine just how much Mars’ North Pole wobbles as it orbits the sun.
These observations will provide detailed information on the size of Mars’ iron-rich core, determining whether the core is liquid, and which other elements, besides iron, may be present.
(C) Heat Flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3)
It will burrows down to almost 16 feet (five meters) into Mars’ surface. That’s deeper than any previous arms, scoops, drills or probes before it.
It will measure the heat coming from Mars’ interior to reveal how much heat is flowing out of the body of the planet, and what the source of the heat is.
This will help scientists determine whether Mars formed from the same stuff as Earth and the Moon.
WHY IN NEWS :
NASA figured it would be able to push itself as deep as 16 feet into the Martian crust, but the consistency of the soil has made that difficult.
Now they intend to use InSight’s robotic arm to push on the soil surrounding the probe ; it could give the mole enough friction to hammer itself deeper underground.
The Airports Authority of India (AAI) and aerospace major Boeing on Tuesday announced the signing of a technical assistance agreement to develop an air traffic management roadmap which will improve airspace utilisation and help maintain efficient aircraft operations.
The comprehensive 10-year communication, navigation and surveillance/air traffic management (CNS/ATM) modernisation roadmap spread over 18 months is being undertaken with a grant from the US Trade and Development Agency (USTDA).
INTERNATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY AGENCY (IRENA)
REPORT: Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2018
IRENA analysed 8 major solar Photo Voltaic Cells markets from 2010 to 2018.
China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, UK , US.
Renewable energy sources have witnessed cost decline globally.
Canada has the highest cost .
India is lowest-cost producer of solar power globally. Costs have dropped by 80 per cent in India.
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation mandated to facilitate cooperation, advance knowledge, and promote the adoption and sustainable use of renewable energy.
It is the first international organisation to focus exclusively on renewable energy, addressing needs in both industrialised and developing countries.
It was founded in 2009 and its statute entered into force on 8 July 2010.
The agency is headquartered in Masdar City, Abu Dhabi.
IRENA is an official United Nations observer.