1) Which of the following statements is/are correct about Humpback Dolphins?
i. The Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin is known to occur within the Indian Ocean from South Africa to India.
ii.They usually live in deep waters.
iii.They are exposed to some of the world’s most intensively utilised, fished, shipped, modified and polluted waters
iv.IUCN currently categorises the Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin as Endangered.
a. i, ii and iii only
b. ii, iii and iv only
c. i, iii and iv only
d. ii, ii and iv only
• The Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin is known to occur within the Indian Ocean from South Africa to India.
• These dolphins usually live in shallow, coastal waters. The habitat preference of the dolphins for shallow waters places them in some of the world’s most intensively utilised, fished, shipped, modified and polluted waters, as per the IUCN (International Union for Conservationof Nature).
• e.g. In May 2018, the carcass of a Humpback Dolphin had washed ashore Versova Beach. It was too decomposed for a post-mortem and was buried in the sand. In 2017, August, a decomposed carcass of a Humpback dolphin had washed ashore at the Carter Road Promenade in Bandra.
• It currently categorises the Indian Ocean Humpback Dolphin as Endangered.
• Dolphins are endangered cetacean species, protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.
• Point to note: The dolphin sightings are not abnormal. They can be seen in coastal and clean water. However, dolphins are hardly spotted near Mumbai coast as there is silt in the water. During winters, the wind is from land to sea (northerly winds), which carry silt away from the shore and that is possibly the reason that the dolphins were spotted near the shore.
• It is listed on Appendix I of the CMS as this species has been categorized as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant proportion of its range and CMS Parties strive towards strictly protecting these animals, conserving or restoring the places where they live, mitigating obstacles to migration and controlling other factors that might endanger them.
• It is listed on Appendix II of the CMS as it has an unfavourable conservation status or would benefit significantly from international co-operation organised by tailored agreements.
2) ‘Operation Kabaddi’ was in news recently. The operation is related to which of the following?
a. Promotion of sports in India
b. To capture tactical points in LoC to alter the geography of the region
c. To capture Siachen before the Pakistani troops
d. To check the infiltration of terrorists through coastal region
• The objective of the Operation Kabaddi was to change the geography of the LoC with access to tactical points there, which would then help the Army tackle the infiltration of militants by the Pakistani side.
• It would’ve been Indian Army’s largest operation, trying to end cross-LoC infiltration by capturing at least 25 selected Pakistani posts along the Line of Control (LoC).
• The operation, dubbed ‘Operation Kabaddi’, would have been on a scale far larger than the “landgrab” attempted by Pakistan, which led to the Kargil war in 1999.
• Kargil, was an opportunistic takeover of land, and winter-vacated posts, where Gen. Musharraf tried to take advantage of an opportunity
• Book: Line on Fire: Ceasefire Violations and India-Pakistan Escalation Dynamics
3) Consider the following statements:
i. Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary, one of the biggest habitats for some hundreds of pelicans and other birds is located in Tamil Nadu.
ii. Pulicat lake is the largest brackish water ecosystem in India.
Which of the above statements is/are true?
a. 1 only
b. 2 only
c. Both 1 and 2
d. Neither 1 nor 2
• Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary is one of the biggest habitats for some hundreds of pelicans and other birds.
• It is located about 20 km north of the Pulicat Lake on the Andhra Pradesh-Tamil Nadu border. This sanctuary spread in an area about 459 hectares and plays important role in nesting of various birds especially migratory birds.
• Pulicat lake is the second largest brackish water ecosystem in the country after the Chilka lake, Odisha.
• Every year during winter season from October to March, different species of migratory birds, roosting migrants and some rare and endangered species from various parts of the world visit the habitat.
• In-news: Three-day Flamingo festival at Sullurupeta, Atakanithippa, Nelapattu and BV Palem in SPS Nellore district.
• Important Point: The arrival of birds, which usually starts in the month of September, was delayed this year till December because of 47% deficit rainfall in the wake of climate change.
4) The painting of Bodhisattva Padmapani is one of the most famous and oft-illustrated paintings at.
• The term “bodhisattva” refers to a person that has been awakened by the Buddhist spirit.
• According to Mahayana doctrine, Alavokitesvara postponed his ascension into Buddhahood until he assisted every being in achieving Nirvana.
• Avalokitesvara takes the largest numbers of forms across Asia.
• In the painting, his tan body, darkened only by the locks of curly hair, is delicate and elegant. He is adorned with pearls, amythyst, and other attributes of traditional Indian jewelry.
• On his head sits a magnificent crown, which at some point was most likely colored in extreme detail, but over time has faded. His eyes are lowered in a meditative state.
• His calm, spiritual face sets the tone and mood of the room.
• In his right hand, he holds a lotus blossom, which may represent his spiritual awakening.
5) With reference to Indian freedom struggle, consider the following events :
1. Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy
2. Quit India Movement launched
3. Second Round Table Conference What is the correct chronological sequence of the above events ?
• RIN Mutiny Date: 18-23 February, 1946
• The mutiny started as a strike by the ratings to protest against the hardships regarding pay, food and racial discrimination.
• The revolt was initiated by the ratings of the Royal Indian Navy on 18 February 1946.
• It was a reaction to the treatment meted out to ratings in general and the lack of service facilities in particular.
• The strike soon spread to other parts of India. The ratings in Calcutta, Madras, Karachi and Vizag also went on strike with the slogans “Strike for Bombay”, “Release 11,000 INA prisoners” and “Jai Hind”.
• On 8 August 1942 at the All-India Congress Committee session in Bombay, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi launched the ‘Quit India’ movement. The next day, Gandhi, Nehru and many other leaders of the Indian National Congress were arrested by the British Government.
• Second Round Table Conference Dates: 7 Sep 1931 – 1 Dec 1931
6) The object of the Butler Committee of 1927 was to?
a. Define the jurisdiction of the Central and Provincial Governments.
b. Define the powers of the Secretary of State for India.
c. Impose censorship on national press.
d. Improve the relationship between the Government of India and the Indian States.
• The Indian states committee appointed a committee under the Chairmanship of Sir Harcourt Butler which was popularly known as ‘the Butler Committee’ to investigate and clarify the relationship between the paramount power and the Princes of Princely States in AD 1927.
• The Committee was formed to inquire into the relationship between the Indian states and the paramount power and to suggest ways and means for more satisfactory adjustments of the existing relations between them and British India.
Recommendations of the Committee
• 1. The relationship of the paramount power with the state was not merely a contractual relationship, but a living, growing relationship shaped by the circumstances and policy, resting on the mixture of history and theory.
• 2. British paramountcy preserves the princely state.
• 3. State should not be transferred without their own agreement to a relationship with a new government in British India responsible to an Indian legislature.