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The national movement took various ideological strands

By May 18, 2022May 22nd, 2023GS1, History, Mains Answer Writing

Ques. Since the decade of the 1920s, the national movement took various ideological strands and thereby expanded its social base. Discuss.


  • Indian Freedom Movement which initially signified disorganisation and irregular protests, after its expansion and addition of different ideological strands took the form of a structure with different ideological bodies competing and complementing each other in the process to achieve ultimate goal of freedom such as –
    • Revolutionary  Nationalism
      • The revolutionaries wanted complete independence and envisioned the State what it would be after freedom.
      • They put in great efforts to mobilise students, workers and peasants to be the driving force behind a mass struggle with a specific endeavour.
      • Funds were raised through different ventures, for instance, the Kakori train robbery.
      • Bhagat singh’s Punjab Navjawansabha, Sachin Sanyal and Jogesh Chandra Chatterji stirred up the youth.
    • Gandhism
      • Satyagraha and the constructive program expanded the mass base for National struggle. The Struggle – Truce – Struggle formula helped Congress to reach grass roots of India.
      • Thus many people from lower caste eventually joined the Indian struggle.
      • Ex: Temple entry movement, Harijan welfare, Farmer protests like Champaran, Kheda.
    • Communism
      • The working class participated in the movement with a definite intention to realise social equality.
      • MN Roy was the driving force behind the ideology which attracted many Indian intellectuals and thus Communist party of India was founded in 1925.
      • It brought Freedom struggle to International Arena and garnered the support of world Organisations.
    • Feminism
      • Women participation has been improved with Gandhian methods and organisations like All Indian Women’s association came to the popular front.
      • Active participation was seen in Non-cooperation and civil disobedience
    • Thus this wide spread social base stood out as togetherness of different masses, signifying the mammoth potential of Indian National Struggle which ultimately resulted into India being born as an Independent Nation.