40. Organisation of village panchayats.
The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.
41. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases.
The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want.
42. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief.
The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.
43. Living wage, etc., for workers.
The State shall endeavour to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative basis in rural areas.
43A. Participation of workers in management of industries.—
The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organizations engaged in any industry.
43B. Promotion of co-operative societies.
The State shall endeavour to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies.
44. Uniform civil code for the citizens.
The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.
45. Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.
The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.
46. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.
The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
47. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavor to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.
48. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
The State shall endeavour to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle.
48A. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife.
The State shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country.
49. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.—
It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest, [declared by or under law made by Parliament] to be of national importance, from spoliation, disfigurement, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be.
50. Separation of judiciary from executive.
The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.
51. Promotion of international peace and security.
The State shall endeavor to:
(a) promote international peace and security;
(b) maintain just and honourable relations between nations;
(c) foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with one another; and
(d) encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
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