3 Upcoming Summits You Must Know for UPSC Prelims 2023
- The world is enduring the most complex and interdependent set of challenges in recent memory.
- Global summits continue to play an indispensable role in driving and coordinating commitments to govern an unruly world.
- Even when summits are heavily scripted, they give leaders a rare opportunity for face-to-face discussions.
- This was something sorely missed during COVID-19.
- Summits can strengthen relationships and increase mutual understanding.
- With countries outside of the West hosting some of the most important summits next year.
- It offers the rest of the world crucial opportunities to shape the multilateral agenda.
- Can the Global South and middle powers rise to the occasion, or will institutional and geopolitical impasses stifle multilateral action?
G-7 Summit 2023- Hiroshima, Japan
Group Of Seven Summit, 2023
- Hiroshima, which was devastated by the first atomic bomb dropped in the Second World War.
- Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida’s decision to host the G7 leaders clearly demonstrates his commitment to nuclear disarmament.
- Kishida hopes that the location will help deepen discussions on achieving a peaceful world without nuclear weapons.
- But the three G7 states with nuclear weapons will probably frustrate his efforts.
- The G7, originally G8, was set up in 1975 as an informal forum bringing together the leaders of the world’s leading industrial nations.
- The summit gathers leaders from the European Union (EU) and the following countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
- The major purpose of the G-7 is to discuss and deliberate on international economic issues.
- It sometimes acts in concert to help resolve other global problems, with a special focus on economic issues.
- Russia was formally inducted as a member in the group in 1998, which led G7 to become G8.
India at G7- 2022
- The Summit of G-7 leaders, the group of the world’s “most industrialised economies”, was held in Germany.
- India along with Indonesia and a few other countries, was a special invitee.
You Must Know
- The G7 is not based on a treaty and has no permanent secretariat or office.
- It is organized through a presidency that rotates annually among the member states.
- With the presiding state setting the group’s priorities and hosting and organizing its summit.
Agenda for G7 in 2023
- Japan also will likely use its G7 presidency to coordinate pressure on Russia to halt its war in Ukraine.
- Promote energy security and maintain the rules-based global order.
- Implementation of the price cap on Russian crude oil will also be a focus of discussion.
- Mobilize funds for the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment.
- Replicate agreements like the recent energy transition partnership with Indonesia. (JET- P).
What is PGII?
- PGII as a “Values-driven, high-impact, and transparent infrastructure partnership.”
- It aims to meet the enormous infrastructure needs of low and middle-income countries.
- It would also support the United States’ and its allies’ economic and national security interests”.
- The G7 members aim to collectively mobilise $600 billion by 2027.
- So that it can be invested in sustainable and quality infrastructure projects in developing countries, including India, and strengthen global supply chains.
G 20 Summit, India, September 2023
- Prime Minister Narendra Modi has chosen “One Earth, One Family, One Future”.
- This will be the theme of India’s Group of Twenty (G20) presidency.
- This will be highlighting the interconnectedness between human life and the environment.
- India will focus its presidency on the world’s top challenges: climate change, terrorism, and pandemics.
India- Swing State
- India will have its hands full uniting a divided G20.
- But its traditional pursuit of strategic autonomy and role as a bridge between East and West.
- To this end, the African Union could be made a permanent G20 member at the summit after receiving U.S. President Joe Biden’s support.
What is Group of Twenty – G20?
Origin and Evolution
- The G20 was founded in 1999 after the Asian financial crisis as a forum for the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to discuss global economic and financial issues.
- The G20 was later upgraded to the level of Heads of State/Government and was designated the “premier forum for international economic cooperation”.
- Since 2011, the G20 Summit is held annually, under the leadership of a rotating Presidency.
- The G20 initially focused largely on broad macroeconomic policy.
- Ever since it has expanded its ambit to include trade, climate change, sustainable development, energy, environment, climate change, anti-corruption etc.
- The G20 does not have a charter or a secretariat.
- The Presidency, aided by the countries holding the Presidency before and after it (Troika), is responsible for setting the agenda of each year’s Summit.
- The G20 process is led by the Sherpas of member countries, who are personal emissaries of the Leaders.
- The Sherpas, oversee negotiations over the course of the year, discussing agenda items for the Summit and coordinating the substantive work of the G20.
- Presidency of G 20 in 2022- Indonesia
SCO Summit, 2023- India
Why in the news?
- The SCO-2022: Samarkand Edition: The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation held its 2022 Summit in the Uzbek city, Samarkand signing the Samarkand Declaration.
- Amidst the chaotic world order due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine or the Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict and world economies getting back on track.
- The Samarqand Declaration emphasised on establishing good neighbourliness, friendship and cooperation.
- India is the president for the 2023 SCO summit & Varanasi is declared as the SCO Tourism and cultural capital for 2022-23.
What is SCO?
- The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was established as a multilateral association to ensure security and maintain stability across the vast Eurasian region
- Join forces to counteract emerging challenges and threats
- Enhance trade
- Cultural and Humanitarian cooperation.
- 1996: ‘The Shanghai Five’ was the consequence series of border demarcation and demilitarisation talks between the four former Soviet Republics and China.
- The Shanghai five consisted of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.
- In 2001, Uzbekistan joined the Shanghai Five and the expanded multilateral organisation was named ‘The Shanghai Cooperation Organization’.
Evolution of SCO-
- 2005: India became an observer at the SCO.
- 2017: India and Pakistan admitted to the grouping as permanent members.
- 2023: Iran is all set to join the SCO as permanent member under Indian Presidentship.
- In terms of geographic scope and population; SCO is one of the largest multilateral organisations in the world.
- Which covers approximately 60% area of Eurasia, 40% world population and 30% global GDP.
- In 2005, Nursultan Nazarbayev (Prezident of Kazakhstan) greeted Indian, Iranian, Pakistani, Mongolian representative in the words, “The leaders of the state sitting at this negotiation table are representative of half of humanity”
|Members (9)||Observer (4)||Dialogue Partner (6)|
The SCO – What India gains??
- Platform to connect and engage collectively with Central Asia. This will promote trade, investment and other engagement with Central Asian countries.
- SCO recognises India’s role beyond South Asia, surpassing the physical and psychological barrier created by Pakistan.
- Also it’s a great platform to push the agenda for regional connectivity and force Pakistan to moderate its view and approach to linking South Asia to Central Asia.
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