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3 Upcoming Summits You Must Know For UPSC Prelims 2023 – International Relations

3 Upcoming Summits You Must Know for UPSC Prelims 2023

International Relations

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  • The world is enduring the most complex and interdependent set of challenges in recent memory.
  • Global summits continue to play an indispensable role in driving and coordinating commitments to govern an unruly world. 
  • Even when summits are heavily scripted, they give leaders a rare opportunity for face-to-face discussions.
  • This was something sorely missed during COVID-19.
  • Summits can strengthen relationships and increase mutual understanding.

Question Arises

  • With countries outside of the West hosting some of the most important summits next year.
  • It offers the rest of the world crucial opportunities to shape the multilateral agenda.
  • Can the Global South and middle powers rise to the occasion, or will institutional and geopolitical impasses stifle multilateral action?

G-7 Summit 2023- Hiroshima, Japan

Group Of Seven Summit, 2023

  • Hiroshima, which was devastated by the first atomic bomb dropped in the Second World War.
  • Japanese Prime Minister Fumio Kishida’s decision to host the G7 leaders clearly demonstrates his commitment to nuclear disarmament. 
  • Kishida hopes that the location will help deepen discussions on achieving a peaceful world without nuclear weapons.
  • But the three G7 states with nuclear weapons will probably frustrate his efforts.

About G7

  • The G7, originally G8, was set up in 1975 as an informal forum bringing together the leaders of the world’s leading industrial nations.
  • The summit gathers leaders from the European Union (EU) and the following countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • The major purpose of the G-7 is to discuss and deliberate on international economic issues.
  • It sometimes acts in concert to help resolve other global problems, with a special focus on economic issues.
  • Russia was formally inducted as a member in the group in 1998, which led G7 to become G8. 

India at G7- 2022

  • The Summit of G-7 leaders, the group of the world’s “most industrialised economies”, was held in Germany.
  • India along with Indonesia and a few other countries, was a special invitee.

You Must Know

  • The G7 is not based on a treaty and has no permanent secretariat or office. 
  • It is organized through a presidency that rotates annually among the member states.
  • With the presiding state setting the group’s priorities and hosting and organizing its summit.

Agenda for G7 in 2023

  • Japan also will likely use its G7 presidency to coordinate pressure on Russia to halt its war in Ukraine.
  • Promote energy security and maintain the rules-based global order. 
  • Implementation of the price cap on Russian crude oil will also be a focus of discussion. 
  • Mobilize funds for the Partnership for Global Infrastructure and Investment.
  • Replicate agreements like the recent energy transition partnership with Indonesia. (JET- P).

What is PGII?

  • PGII as a “Values-driven, high-impact, and transparent infrastructure partnership.”
  • It aims to meet the enormous infrastructure needs of low and middle-income countries.
  • It would also support the United States’ and its allies’ economic and national security interests”. 
  • The G7 members aim to collectively mobilise $600 billion by 2027.
  • So that it can be invested in sustainable and quality infrastructure projects in developing countries, including India, and strengthen global supply chains

G 20 Summit, India, September 2023

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi has chosen “One Earth, One Family, One Future”.
  • This will be the theme of India’s Group of Twenty (G20) presidency.
  • This will be highlighting the interconnectedness between human life and the environment. 
  • India will focus its presidency on the world’s top challenges: climate change, terrorism, and pandemics.

India- Swing State

  • India will have its hands full uniting a divided G20.
  • But its traditional pursuit of strategic autonomy and role as a bridge between East and West.
  • To this end, the African Union could be made a permanent G20 member at the summit after receiving U.S. President Joe Biden’s support.

What is Group of Twenty – G20? 

Origin and Evolution

  • The G20 was founded in 1999 after the Asian financial crisis as a forum for the Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors to discuss global economic and financial issues. 
  • The G20 was later upgraded to the level of Heads of State/Government and was designated the “premier forum for international economic cooperation”. 
  • Since 2011, the G20 Summit is held annually, under the leadership of a rotating Presidency. 
  • The G20 initially focused largely on broad macroeconomic policy.
  •  Ever since it has expanded its ambit to include trade, climate change, sustainable development, energy, environment, climate change, anti-corruption etc. 

Organizational Structure

  • The G20 does not have a charter or a secretariat. 
  • The Presidency, aided by the countries holding the Presidency before and after it (Troika), is responsible for setting the agenda of each year’s Summit.
  • The G20 process is led by the Sherpas of member countries, who are personal emissaries of the Leaders. 
  • The Sherpas, oversee negotiations over the course of the year, discussing agenda items for the Summit and coordinating the substantive work of the G20. 
  • Presidency of G 20 in 2022- Indonesia

SCO Summit, 2023- India

Why in the news?

  • The SCO-2022: Samarkand Edition: The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation held its 2022 Summit in the Uzbek city, Samarkand signing the Samarkand Declaration
  • Amidst the chaotic world order due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine or the Armenia-Azerbaijan Conflict and world economies getting back on track.
  • The Samarqand Declaration emphasised on establishing good neighbourliness, friendship and cooperation.
  • India is the president for the 2023 SCO summit & Varanasi is declared as the SCO Tourism and cultural capital for 2022-23.

What is SCO?

  • The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was established as a multilateral association to ensure security and maintain stability across the vast Eurasian region
  • Join forces to counteract emerging challenges and threats
  • Enhance trade
  • Cultural and Humanitarian cooperation.


  • 1996: ‘The Shanghai Five’ was the consequence series of border demarcation and demilitarisation talks between the four former Soviet Republics and China. 
  • The Shanghai five consisted of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. 
  • In 2001, Uzbekistan joined the Shanghai Five and the expanded multilateral organisation was named ‘The Shanghai Cooperation Organization’.

Evolution of SCO-

  • 2005: India became an observer at the SCO.
  • 2017: India and Pakistan admitted to the grouping as permanent members.
  • 2023: Iran is all set to join the SCO as permanent member under Indian Presidentship.
  • In terms of geographic scope and population; SCO is one of the largest multilateral organisations in the world.
  • Which covers approximately 60% area of Eurasia, 40% world population and 30% global GDP.
  • In 2005, Nursultan Nazarbayev (Prezident of Kazakhstan) greeted Indian, Iranian, Pakistani, Mongolian representative in the words, The leaders of the state sitting at this negotiation table are representative of half of humanity”


Members (9) Observer (4) Dialogue Partner (6)
  1. Russia
  2. China
  3. Tajikistan
  4. Kazakhstan 
  5. Kyrgyzstan
  6. Uzbekistan
  7. India
  8. Pakistan
  1. Afghanistan
  2. Mongolia
  3. Belarus
  4. IRAN→will be a permanent member of SCO in 2023
  1. Azerbaijan
  2. Armenia
  3. Sri Lanka
  4. Nepal
  5. Turkey
  6. Cambodia

The SCO – What India gains??

  • Platform to connect and engage collectively with Central Asia. This will promote trade, investment and other engagement with Central Asian countries.
  • SCO recognises India’s role beyond South Asia, surpassing the physical and psychological barrier created by Pakistan. 
  • Also it’s a great platform to push the agenda for regional connectivity and force Pakistan to moderate its view and approach to linking South Asia to Central Asia. 

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