FREE Environment & Ecology Mega Question Bank for UPSC Prelims 2024

Solving practice questions for Prelims is a must to ensure success. To maximise score in UPSC Prelims and clearing cut off, Toppers recommend daily solving of MCQs

Routine solving of Practice & Mock Tests for UPSC Prelims helps students:

  • Understand the pattern and types of Prelims questions
  • Understand their subject and topic wise weaknesses in Prelims GS exam
  • Sharpen their skills and accuracy of answers in Prelims
  • Time themselves and assess readiness for the exam
  • Value add and revise in an effective and time efficient manner
To score well in Environment & Ecology, UPSC aspirants should not only cover basic sources and booklist like Shankar, but also practice mock tests and Environment PYQ and Ecology PYQ for UPSC Prelims. Now use this High Quality, Updated, UPSC Pattern Oriented FREE Environment & Ecology Question Bank of 150 Questions to Level Up your Prelims Preparation!
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For UPSC Prelims GS Paper, issues on Environmental Ecology, Biodiversity and Climate Change are a very important area of study. In UPSC Prelims, on average about 25-40 marks questions are from Environment. High weightage is given to Environment & Ecology as UPSC Prelims is conducted common for UPSC CSE and Indian Forest Services.

Topics covered in this FREE Environment & Ecology Question Bank include the entire UPSC Prelims Environment & Ecology Syllabus with all Environment PYQ and Ecology PYQ:

Part I: Environment and Ecology
Basics  of Environment and Ecology
  • Categories of Environment
  • Features of Environment
  • Components of Environment
  • Ecology
  • Types of Environment
Ecosystem
  • Definition of an Ecosystem, Dynamics Within Ecosystems, Elements Comprising Ecosystems, Interconnections Within Food Chains and Webs, Population Pyramids, and Influences of Living and Non-Living Factors.
  • Variations in Ecosystem Types, Strategies for Preserving Ecosystems, Alterations Observed in Ecosystems, Examples Like Eutrophication, Coral Reefs, Initiatives Such as The Namami Ganga Program, and Recent Actions Taken.
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Gaseous Cycle, Sedimentary Cycle, Human Impact on the Carbon Cycle, and Nutrient Cycle
Pollution and Degradation
  • Degradation of Land, Methods For Preserving Soil Integrity, Erosion of Soil, Practices For Managing Land Sustainably, Expansion of Deserts, Contamination of The Air, 
  • Disturbances Caused by Noise, Presence of Plastic Waste, Radiation Contamination, Increase in Temperature of Water Bodies Due to Human Activities, Deterioration of Water Quality And Pollution of Oceans, 
  • Negative Impacts of Mining on The Environment, Strategies Like Bioremediation for Restoring Ecological Balance, Connections Between Environmental Pollution and Human Health, Phenomenon of Acid Precipitation.
Environmental Issues
  • Indian Himalayan
  • Sand Mining 
  • Palm Oil
  • Wildlife Deaths
  • Human Animal Conflict
  • Genetically Engineered Trees
  • Cost of Environmental Degradation
Environment Impact Assessment
  • Environmental Impact Assessment:
  • Need for EIA, EIA Cycle and procedure
Population Ecology
  • Characteristics of Populations, Models Explaining Population Growth, Various Species and The Dangers They Face, and The Maximum Population Earth can Support.
Waste Management
  • Biomedical Waste
  • E-Waste Management
  • Hazardous Waste
  • Solid Waste Management
Part II: Biodiversity 
Basics of Biodiversity 
  • Types of Biodiversity, Scales At Which Biodiversity Is Assessed, Methods For Quantifying Biodiversity, Different types of Services Provided by Biodiversity
  • Approaches to Safeguarding Biodiversity, Red Data Book,, Factors Posing Risks to Biodiversity 
  • Disappearance of Species, Categories and Reasons Behind Species Disappearance, Repercussions Of Species Loss, Endangered Species Native to India
  • Efforts To Conserve Biodiversity Within India, International Agreements And Guidelines Aimed At Safeguarding Biodiversity.
Indian Biodiversity
  • Indian Bio-Geographical Classification, Fauna and  Flora Diversity
  • Animal Diversity of India: 
  • Mammals 
    • Critically Endangered Animals, 
    • Mammals, 
    • Birds, 
    • Fishes,
    • Corals, 
    • Man- Animal Conflict.
  • Plant Diversity of India: 
    • Plant Classification
    • Insectivorous Plants
    • Invasive Alien Flora
    • Medicinal Plants
    • Tree Characteristics
  • Schedule Animals of WPA, 1972
  • Marine Organism: Plankton and Its Types, Seagrass and Seaweed
Biodiversity Conservation Initiatives
  • National Initiatives: Wildlife Sanctuary and National Parks Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves, Coastal Protected Areas, Sacred Groves of India, Export Prohibited Items.
  • GLobal Initiatives: Man And Biosphere, Biosphere Reserves, National Biosphere Reserve Programme, World Network of Biosphere Reserves, Biodiversity Hotspots, World Heritage Sites
Conservation Efforts
  • Project Tiger, Lion, Leopards, Elephant, Secure Himalaya, Hangul 
  • Crocodile Conservation Project 
  • Captive Breeding, and Other Government Measures
Part III: Climate Change
Basic Understandings
  • Greenhouse Gases and Greenhouse Effects; 
  • Global warming and its potential 
  • Ozone depletion; 
  • Ocean Acidification and Rising Sea Level
  • India and Climate Change: Agriculture and Food Security, Water Stress, Sea Level, Rise, Ecosystem and Biodiversity, Health
India and Climate Change
  • Carbon Mitigation Strategies:  Carbon Sequestration Carbon Credit and Offsetting,  Carbon Tax, and Geo-Engineering.
  • Climate Change in India
  • Indian Network on Climate Change Assessment, NATCOM, India’s Policy Structure Relevant to GHG Mitigation, Green Building, Griha, NAFCC
Climate Change Organizations
  • IPCC and IPCC Reports;
  • UNFCCC and Important Conference of Parties.
  • Kyoto Protocol and Other Developments
  • REDD and REDD+ , Global Environment Facilities, Climate Smart Agriculture, and the National Green House Gas Inventories Programme. 
  • Green Economy, Climate Finance and Other GLobal Initiatives
Part IV: Agriculture
Agriculture
  • Crop and its Classification, Various Tillage Operations, Cropping Systems and Patterns, Types of Farming System, Sustainable Agriculture,  and its Components  Organic Farming and Natural Farming,  Integrated Farming System, Soil and its characteristics.
Part V: Miscellaneous
Acts and Policies
  • Wildlife Protection Act (WPA) 1972
  • Environment Protection Act (EPA) 1986
  • National Forest Policy, 1988
  • Biological Diversity Act, 2002
  • FRA 2006
  • CRZ
  • Wetland Rules 2010 National Green Tribunal, 
  • The Ozone Depleting Substances Rules.
  • Bio-Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016, 
  • E-Waste Management Rules, 2016, 
  • Plastic Waste Management (PWM) Rules, 2016, 
  • Wetland Rules 2010 National Green Tribunal, 
Environmental Organisations
  • Organisations,, their Origin and various initiatives taken
  • Animal Welfare Board, Central Zoo Authority, National BioDiversity Authority, Wildlife Crime Control Bureau 
Environmental Conventions: 
  • UNCED, UNCCD, UNCBD, Ramsar Convention, CITES, TRAFFIC, CMS, IUCN, Stockholm, Basel, and Rotterdam Convention, Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol, Kigali Agreement,Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems, and Minamata Convention
Other Facts
  • State Animals and State Birds, Animal and Plant species in News, National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuary, TIger Reserves, Elephant reserves, Lakes , Dams, India’s Biosphere Reserves, List of Sacred Groves, Mangrove sites, etc.

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