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5 MCQs for Prelims-Day 03(75 days Journey)

By March 12, 2022March 24th, 2022GS 3, Science & Technology

SCIENCE AND TECH(5 MCQs)

 

 

1. Gold nanoparticles are considered as promising candidates for skin immunization and other therapeutic uses. They can be synthesized by using:

  1. Bacteria
  2. Fungi
  3. Algae
  4. Plant

Select the correct answer code: 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1,2 and 3 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. All of the above

_________________________________________________________________________________

2. Consider the following statements regarding somatic gene editing therapy :

  1. It involve modifying a patient’s DNA to cure a disease caused by a genetic mutation
  2. The edited gene is passed on to the future generation.
  3. Defective blood cells can be treated by using this technique

Select the correct answer code: 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. All of the above

 

 3. Which among the following is/are gene editing technologies: 

  1. CRISPR Cas 9 
  2. TALEN 
  3. Meganucleases 
  4. SHANEL

Select the correct answer code: 

  1. 1,2 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2,3 and 4 only
  4. 1 and 4 only

_________________________________________________________________________________

4Micropropagation, recently seen in news, is more specifically related to:

  1. Tissue culture 
  2. Three parent baby
  3. Gene editing 
  4. Animal Clonning

5 Recently reproductive Ratio seen in news, its value depends upon:  

  1. The number of days an infected person remains infectious 
  2. The number of susceptible persons available to infect 
  3. The chance that a susceptible person gets infected

Select the correct answer code: 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 only
  4. All of the above

1Gold nanoparticles are considered as promising candidates for skin immunization and other therapeutic uses. They can be synthesized by using:

  1. Bacteria
  2. Fungi
  3. Algae
  4. Plant

Select the correct answer code: 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 and 4 only
  4. All of the above

Answer: – D

Gold nanoparticles

  • Gold nanoparticles are made up of metallic gold atoms to create a crystal structure of 1-100 nm
  • Gold nanoparticles have been produced in the laboratory for several decades, and many approaches have since been developed.

Methods

  • Chemical method
  • Physical method
  • Biological method
    • Bacteria
    • Algae
    • Fungi or plants 

are used to reduce gold to its metallic state through various biological processes.

 

 APPLICATIONS

The range of applications for gold nanoparticles is growing rapidly and includes:

  • Electronics – Gold nanoparticles are designed for use as conductors from printable inks to electronic chips.
  • Photodynamic Therapy – Near-IR absorbing gold nanoparticles (including gold nanoshells and nanorods) produce heat when excited by light at wavelengths from 700 to 800 nm. This enables these nanoparticles to eradicate targeted tumors.
  • Therapeutic Agent Delivery – Therapeutic agents can also be coated onto the surface of gold nanoparticles.

More APPLICATIONS:

  • Sensors – Gold nanoparticles are used in a variety of sensors. For example, a colorimetric sensor based on gold nanoparticles can identify if foods are suitable for consumption.
  • Diagnostics – Gold nanoparticles are also used to detect biomarkers in the diagnosis of heart diseases, cancers, and infectious agents.
  • Catalysis – Gold nanoparticles are used as catalysts in a number of chemical reactions.

 

 2Consider the following statements regarding somatic gene editing therapy :

  1. It involves modifying a patient’s DNA to cure a disease caused by a genetic mutation
  2. The edited gene is passed on to the future generation.
  3. Defective blood cells can be treated by using this technique

Select the correct answer code: 

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. All of the above

Answer: – C

Somatic Gene Therapy:

  • Somatic gene therapies involve modifying a patient’s DNA to treat or cure a disease caused by a genetic mutation
  • In one clinical trial, for example:
    • Scientists take blood stem cells from a patient
    • Use CRISPR techniques to correct the genetic mutation causing them to produce defective blood cells
    • Infuse the “corrected” cells back into the patient, where they produce healthy hemoglobin. 
    • The treatment changes the patient’s blood cells, but not his or her sperm or eggs.

Germline Human Genome Editing:

  • Germline human genome editing, on the other hand, alters the genome of a human embryo at its earliest stages. 
  • This may affect every cell, which means it has an impact not only on the person who may result, but possibly on his or her descendants
  • There are, therefore, substantial restrictions on its use.

3Which among the following is/are gene editing technologies: 

  1. CRISPR Cas 9 
  2. TALEN 
  3. Meganucleases 
  4. SHANEL

Select the correct answer code: 

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1 and 4 only

Answer: -A

Gene editing technologies

  • CRISPR- CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)

Other (Just names)

  • Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs)
  • Zinc-Finger Nucleases (ZFNs)
  • Homing endonucleases or meganucleases.

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