Climate Change (GS- 3)
TOPIC- HEED THE WARNING
- The recent report of IPCC has warned of multiple climate change-induced disasters in the next two
- Despite strong action is taken to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gas
- The latest warnings have come in the second part of IPCC’s 6thAssessment
- The Assessment Reports, the first of which had come out in 1990, are the most comprehensive evaluations of the state of the earth’s
- The 4 subsequent reports came out in 1995, 2001, 2007 and 2015
- The latest report has, for the first time, made an assessment of regional and sectoral impacts of climate change.
Concerns Raised in The Report
- Scarcely any part of the world has been left unscathed by extreme weather events — floods, droughts, heatwaves.
- The report warns that “Even a temporary increase in the 5 degrees Celsius warming will result in
additional severe impacts”
- The report further goes on to underline building people’s resilience, especially that of the most vulnerable.
- Climate-sensitive policymaking at the national and local levels is only a part of the
Warning for India
- Global warming will affect the country’s coasts, plains, forests, rivers, groundwater and mountain
- This places demands on policymakers in diverse realms — from weather prediction, to agriculture and fisheries, urban and infrastructure
- The report notes that more than 40% of the country’s population will have to make do with water scarcity by 2050.
- Country’s coastal areas, including cities such as Mumbai, will be affected by sea-level
- Flooding will intensify in the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basins and crop production systems will be disrupted by drought.
- Policymakers will have to find ways to ensure that the country’s food security is not adversely affected
- Developed countries must accept their historical culpability for climate change.
- At COP-26 in Glasgow last year developed countries thwarted India’s case for a climate adaptation fund.
- The IPCC has again made a call for “equitable adaptation” efforts across the
- The 3rd and final part of the report, which will look into the possibilities of reducing emissions, is expected to come out in
Question Framed from Editorial
- What are the key findings of the IPCC 6th assessment report which released it’s second edition Enumerate the concerns addressed in the report for India. (250 words)
TOPIC- THE HEAT IS ON.
Author: – Anjal Prakash
- The 3 major climate change hotspots are the Semi-arid and Arid regions, the Himalayan ecosystem
and Coastal zones.
- India has 7,500 km of coastline, which is Home to 33 crore people living within 150 km from the coast, including many essential
- One of the most sensitive to climate change, the Himalayan region, is home to 5 crore people covering 13 states and union territories
- Roughly a quarter of Indians now live in urban
- In the next 15 years, this figure is expected to reach 40%, covering 60 crore
- Cities in India will experience more heat stress, urban floods and other climate-induced hazards such as cyclones.
Challenges of Urbanization
- The primary driver of increased heat exposure is the combination of global warming and population growth in already-warm cities in
- The Urban Heat island also elevates temperatures within cities, which will be amplified during the heatwave
- This also implies heat-induced labour productivity loss, resulting in economic
- The unplanned urbanization in Himalayan towns is causing significant changes in land use and land cover.
- Due to this, heavy rains are becoming frequent and are leading to more
- Global warming has increased the average temperature in the
- This has caused glacier melt and subsequent change in hydrological regimes of the
- One of the contributing factors of glacial decline is the deposition of black
- This is contributed by stubble burning, brick kilns, polluting
- Water insecurity in hill towns is becoming the order of the
- Sea level rise and increases in tropical cyclone storm surge and rainfall variability leading to a rise in the intensity of rainfall.
- This will lead to larger probabilities of cities getting flooded.
- The report predicts that there is evidence that changes in high-intensity short duration (sub-daily) rainfall in urban areas will
- Places like Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Goa, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at a greater risk of being flooded.
- Adaptation measures to manage flooding impacts such as stormwater management, green infrastructure, and sustainable urban drainage systems.
- India needs to re-adopt its traditional adaptation
- Better adaptation policies could lead to a safer and more sustainable future.
- Indian cities cited in the report have shown that the economic benefits of adaptation are a strategy for local institutions to support adaptation
- City-level political leadership has to support adaptation action beyond national policy.
- Creating naturally ventilated buildings, can be a vital alternative to address the urban heat island Question framed From Editorial
- Adaptation in cities will depend mainly on the resilience of natural, social and physical Elaborate (250 words)
International Relations (GS- 2)
TOPIC- INDIA AND THE STAND OF NON ALLIGNMENT
Author: – Chinmaya R. Gharekhan
Challenging For India
- India is in a difficult On the one hand, there is the growing relationship with the United States.
- Much is also made of the famous Quad which is essentially an arrangement to contain
- How that helps India, the only one in Quad having a territorial dispute with China, is not clear.
- On the other hand, there is Russia with whom we have a longstanding history of friendship.
- Russia is still our principal source of military hardware and which is willing, more than other countries, to share the technology
- One can hardly forget how the Russians stalled action in the UN for several days at the time of the 1971 Bangladesh war.
- Government had done well by maintaining a kind of neutral
- It is a demonstration of the classical Nehruvian policy of Non alignment.
- Yes, the Russian invasion is wrong by every principle of international
- But the only lasting principle in foreign policy is the principle of national
- National interest will always trump principles.
- That is what Nehru did at the time of the Soviet Union marching with tanks into Hungary in 1956.
- However, Our stand stood out in stark contrast to our stand on the Anglo French-Israeli aggression on Egypt.
- Nehru condemned this, when it nationalized the Suez Canal the same