EDITORIAL DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS-2nd March - Sleepy Classes IAS Skip to main content


By March 2, 2022May 22nd, 2023GS 2, International Relations

Climate Change (GS- 3)




IPCC Report

  • The recent report of IPCC has warned of multiple climate change-induced disasters in the next two
  • Despite strong action is taken to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gas
  • The latest warnings have come in the second part of IPCC’s 6thAssessment
  • The Assessment Reports, the first of which had come out in 1990, are the most comprehensive evaluations of the state of the earth’s
  • The 4 subsequent reports came out in 1995, 2001, 2007 and 2015
  • The latest report has, for the first time, made an assessment of regional and sectoral impacts of climate change.

Concerns Raised in The Report

  • Scarcely any part of the world has been left unscathed by extreme weather events — floods, droughts, heatwaves.
  • The report warns that “Even a temporary increase in the 5 degrees Celsius warming will result in

additional severe impacts

  • The report further goes on to underline building people’s resilience, especially that of the most vulnerable.
  • Climate-sensitive policymaking at the national and local levels is only a part of the

Warning for India

  • Global warming will affect the country’s coasts, plains, forests, rivers, groundwater and mountain
  • This places demands on policymakers in diverse realms — from weather prediction, to agriculture and fisheries, urban and infrastructure
  • The report notes that more than 40% of the country’s population will have to make do with water scarcity by 2050.
  • Country’s coastal areas, including cities such as Mumbai, will be affected by sea-level
  • Flooding will intensify in the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basins and crop production systems will be disrupted by drought.

Way Forward

  • Policymakers will have to find ways to ensure that the country’s food security is not adversely affected
  • Developed countries must accept their historical culpability for climate change.


  • At COP-26 in Glasgow last year developed countries thwarted India’s case for a climate adaptation fund.
  • The IPCC has again made a call for “equitable adaptation” efforts across the
  • The 3rd and final part of the report, which will look into the possibilities of reducing emissions, is expected to come out in

Question Framed from Editorial

  • What are the key findings of the IPCC 6th assessment report which released it’s second edition Enumerate the concerns addressed in the report for India. (250 words) 




Author: – Anjal Prakash


India’s Vulnerabilities

  • The 3 major climate change hotspots are the Semi-arid and Arid regions, the Himalayan ecosystem

and Coastal zones.

  • India has 7,500 km of coastline, which is Home to 33 crore people living within 150 km from the coast, including many essential
  • One of the most sensitive to climate change, the Himalayan region, is home to 5 crore people covering 13 states and union territories
  • Roughly a quarter of Indians now live in urban
  • In the next 15 years, this figure is expected to reach 40%, covering 60 crore
  • Cities in India will experience more heat stress, urban floods and other climate-induced hazards such as cyclones.

Challenges of Urbanization

  • The primary driver of increased heat exposure is the combination of global warming and population growth in already-warm cities in
  • The Urban Heat island also elevates temperatures within cities, which will be amplified during the heatwave
  • This also implies heat-induced labour productivity loss, resulting in economic
  • The unplanned urbanization in Himalayan towns is causing significant changes in land use and land cover.
  • Due to this, heavy rains are becoming frequent and are leading to more

Vulnerable Himalayas

  • Global warming has increased the average temperature in the
  • This has caused glacier melt and subsequent change in hydrological regimes of the
  • One of the contributing factors of glacial decline is the deposition of black
  • This is contributed by stubble burning, brick kilns, polluting
  • Water insecurity in hill towns is becoming the order of the

Flood Risks

  • Sea level rise and increases in tropical cyclone storm surge and rainfall variability leading to a rise in the intensity of rainfall.
  • This will lead to larger probabilities of cities getting flooded.
  • The report predicts that there is evidence that changes in high-intensity short duration (sub-daily) rainfall in urban areas will


  • Places like Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Goa, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are at a greater risk of being flooded.

Way Forward

  • Adaptation measures to manage flooding impacts such as stormwater management, green infrastructure, and sustainable urban drainage systems.
  • India needs to re-adopt its traditional adaptation
  • Better adaptation policies could lead to a safer and more sustainable future.
  • Indian cities cited in the report have shown that the economic benefits of adaptation are a strategy for local institutions to support adaptation
  • City-level political leadership has to support adaptation action beyond national policy.
  • Creating naturally ventilated buildings, can be a vital alternative to address the urban heat island Question framed From Editorial
  • Adaptation in cities will depend mainly on the resilience of natural, social and physical Elaborate (250 words)


International Relations (GS- 2)



Author: – Chinmaya R. Gharekhan


Challenging For India

  • India is in a difficult On the one hand, there is the growing relationship with the United States.
  • Much is also made of the famous Quad which is essentially an arrangement to contain
  • How that helps India, the only one in Quad having a territorial dispute with China, is not clear.
  • On the other hand, there is Russia with whom we have a longstanding history of friendship.
  • Russia is still our principal source of military hardware and which is willing, more than other countries, to share the technology
  • One can hardly forget how the Russians stalled action in the UN for several days at the time of the 1971 Bangladesh war.

Non Alignment

  • Government had done well by maintaining a kind of neutral
  • It is a demonstration of the classical Nehruvian policy of Non alignment.
  • Yes, the Russian invasion is wrong by every principle of international
  • But the only lasting principle in foreign policy is the principle of national
  • National interest will always trump principles.
  • That is what Nehru did at the time of the Soviet Union marching with tanks into Hungary in 1956.
  • However, Our stand stood out in stark contrast to our stand on the Anglo French-Israeli aggression on Egypt.
  • Nehru condemned this, when it nationalized the Suez Canal the same