- States of matter, structure of atom, versatile nature of carbon
- Acids, bases, salts, corrosion in metals, action of soaps.
- Life on Earth – evolution, marine & terrestrial life. Human body and life processes, nutrition, disease – its causes & prevention, infectious diseases, lifestyle diseases.
- Public health initiatives, mother and child health, immunisation & vaccination, HIV-AIDS, TB, polio etc.
- Force-laws of motion & gravitation, Archimedes principle.
- Energy – kinetic & potential. Light – reflection & refraction – concepts and applications.
- Sound – propagation & reflection- concepts and applications.
- Electric current – concepts and applications.
- Computers and telecommunication – concepts and applications.
- Composition and structure of the atmosphere.
- Solar system – heat balance & temperature.
- Atmospheric circulation & weather system, water cycle.
- Climate change – fossil fuels, greenhouse gases, renewable energy, clean development mechanism, carbon credits.
- Water – oceans, rivers, glaciers, lakes, groundwater etc.
- Biodiversity & conservation.
- Soil – types, crops, food chain etc.
- Pollution & Toxicity etc.
Political Theory & International Order
- Basic concept of freedom, equality, social justice, rights & duties, citizenship, nationalism, secularism etc.
- United Nations and its organs/agencies, other international organisations like the World Bank, IMF, WTO, EU, G20, BRICS etc. and their role in the World peace, trade & development.
- Basic features, provisions, schedules of the Indian Constitution, key amendments. Panchayati Raj.
- Elections – People’s Representation Act, electoral reforms.
- Rise of regionalism and coalition politics. Armed challenges to the Indian state since independence.
History of India
- The Indus valley civilisation.
- The Aryan and the Vedic age.
- Jainism and Buddhism.
- The Maurya Gupta periods.
- Advent of Islam and Sultanate period (political, social & cultural).
- The Bhakti Movement.
- The Mughals (political, social & cultural till Aurangzeb).
- The coming of the European Powers and the advent of the British rule.
- The Mutiny of 1857.
- The British rule and the Indian National Movement (1857-1947)
- The Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution in Europe.
- The American Revolution 1776.
- The French Revolution 1789.
- The Russian Revolution 1917.
- World Wars I and II.
- Indian economic development (1950-1991) – key economic policies, public sector dominance, bank nationalisation etc.
- Five year plans – key goals and main achievements.
- Liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation era since 1991 – key policies, decisions and results.
- Performance of Indian economy since 1991 – Growth, fiscal & revenue deficits, trade, commerce & balance of payments, inflation, growth of service sector.
- Key challenges and responses – agriculture and food security, industrialisation, poverty alleviation & employment, rural & urban infrastructure, social sector – health, education etc.
- Population – distribution, density, growth and comparison.
- Migration – types, causes and consequences.
- Human development. Human settlements.
- Land resources and agriculture.
- Water resources.
- Mineral and energy resources.
- Manufacturing industries.
- Planning and sustainable development in India.
- Transport and communication.
- International trade.
- Geographical perspective on selected issues and problems.
- Geography: Geographical and agro-climatic regions, rivers, water resources, sharing of waters, demographics, human development indices
- People, Society and Culture: Major personalities in history of Punjab, religious movements, major religions & spiritual personalities, Punjabi literature, folklore, performing arts, fine arts and crafts
- History: Sufis, saints and gurus, Lodhis and Mughals, Sikh rulers, the British period, nationalist movement in Punjab, Punjab in independent India.
- Economy: Agriculture, animal husbandry, industrial & service sectors, major occupations, development & economic growth, public finance (including central-state fiscal issues), public sector institutions, cooperatives etc.
Current events of national and international importance