- Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.
- Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
- Sociology and common sense.
UPSC Sociology Syllabus
Sociology: The Discipline
Sociology as a Science
- Science, scientific method and critique.
- Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
- Positivism and its critique.
- Fact value and objectivity.
- Non-positivist methodologies
Research Methods and Analysis
- Qualitative and quantitative methods.
- Techniques of data collection.
- Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
- Karl Marx – Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
- Emile Durkhteim – Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
- Max Weber – Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
- Talcolt Parsons – Social system, pattern variables.
- Robert K. Merton – Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
- Mead – Self and identity.
Stratification and Mobility
- Concepts – equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
- Theories of social stratification – Structural func tionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
- Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
- Social mobility – open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
Works and Economic Life
- Social organization of work in different types of society – slave society, feudal society, industrial capitalist society.
- Formal and informal organization of work.
- Labour and society.
Politics and Society
- Sociological theories of power.
- Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties.
- Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
- Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
Religion and Society
- Sociological theories of religion.
- Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
- Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamen talism.
Systems of Kinship
- Family, household, marriage.
- Types and forms of family.
- Lineage and descent.
- Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
- Contemporary trends.
Social Change in Modern Society
- Sociological theories of social change.
- Development and dependency.
- Agents of social change.
- Education and social change.
- Science, technology and social change.
Introducing Indian Society
- Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society: Indology (G.S. Ghure); Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas); Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).
- Impact of colonial rule on Indian society: Social background of Indian nationalism; Modernization of Indian tradition; Protests and movements during the colonial period; Social reforms.
- Rural and Agrarian Social Structure: The idea of Indian village and village studies; Agrarian social structure— evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
- Caste System: Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille; Features of caste system; Untouchability-forms and perspectives
- Tribal Communities in India: Definitional problems; Geographical spread; Colonial policies and tribes; Issues of integration and autonomy.
- Social Classes in India: Agrarian class structure; Industrial class structure; Middle classes in India.
- Systems of Kinship in India: Lineage and descent in India; Types of kinship systems; Family and marriage in India; Household dimensions of the family; Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.
- Religion and Society : Religious communities in India; Problems of religious minorities.
Social Changes in India
- Visions of Social Change in India: Idea of development planning and mixed economy; Constitution, law and social change; Education and social change.
- Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India: Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes; Green revolution and social change; Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture; Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
- Industrialization and Urbanisation in India: Evolution of modern industry in India; Growth of urban settlements in India; Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization; Informal sector, child labour; Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
- Politics and Society: Nation, democracy and citizenship; Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite; Regionalism and decentralization of power; Secularization.
- Social Movements in Modern India: Peasants and farmers movements; Women’s movement; Backward classes & Dalit movements; Environmental movements; Ethnicity and Identity movements.
- Population Dynamics: Population size, growth, composition and distribution; Components of population growth: birth, death, migration; Population Policy and family planning; Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
- Challenges of Social Transformation: Crisis of development : displacement, environmental problems and sustainability; Poverty, deprivation and inequalities; Violence against women; Caste conflicts; Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism; Illiteracy and disparities in education